Listen to Our Shows on Mixcloud

We broad­cast music, news and dis­cus­sion from 10am to 10pm and repeat overnight, 7 days a week. We also Mix­cloud our shows so that you can listen whenever and wherever suits you.

We cover a wide range of top­ics by all ages for all ages:

  • Eco issues, human rights and in-depth news (both local and global)
  • Sci­ence, his­tory, arts and poetry
  • Stor­ies, week­end live per­form­ances by Brighton musicians.

For more inform­a­tion, please see the About Us page.

Stop Monsanto’s latest attack‏

India’s food crops are cur­rently GMO-free – but that’s about to change very soon, if we don’t act now and stop Monsanto’s latest attack.Monsanto wants to intro­duce its genet­ic­ally engin­eered food crops, start­ing with its pesticide-resistant corn, des­pite facing local opposition.

Monsanto’s pesticide-soaked, mono­cul­ture cor­por­ate agri­cul­ture is awful for farm­ers and the envir­on­ment. And once Monsanto gets con­trol of a country’s food sys­tem, it’svir­tu­ally impossible for farm­ers to get free.

It’s not too late. Sign the peti­tion to stop Monsanto from hold­ing India’s farm­ers to ransom!

Monsanto’s busi­ness model is simple: Get farm­ers hooked on its genet­ic­ally engin­eered, pesticide-resistant seeds. Force those farm­ers to buy new seeds every year — or get sued. And sell them massive amounts of pesti­cides to spray on those seeds.

That’s why, once Monsanto gets its foot in the door, it’s able to almost com­pletely take over a country’s agri­cul­tural sys­tem.

We’ve seen it all hap­pen before in India. A dec­ade ago, Monsanto man­aged to get its cot­ton seeds approved in India. Now over 95% of the cot­ton crop is owned by Monsanto.

And Monsanto has the same plan for India’s food crops.

Wreck­ing eco­sys­tems, selling toxic chem­ic­als, and driv­ing small farm­ers out of busi­ness are all in a day’s work for Monsanto. But it’s not too late for India, if we act now.

SumO­fUs was cre­ated to sup­port people’s struggles against cor­por­ate greed around the world. And we are already fight­ing back against Monsanto — we helped the tiny state of Ver­mont raise almost a quarter of a mil­lion dol­lars to defend them­selves against Monsanto’s bul­ly­ing. If we can raise enough pres­sure on the Indian gov­ern­ment to refuse Monsanto’s GMO crops, we can stop it from exploit­ing a mar­ket of 1.25 bil­lion people.

Ask the gov­ern­ment of India to reject Monsanto’s attempts to take over India’s food sys­tem and save India’s farmers!

Thanks for all that you do,
Kaytee, and the team at SumOfUs


More information:

Monsanto says GM corn trial in final stage in India, Reu­ters, 27 Feb­ru­ary 2015
GM corn trial in final stage, The News Inter­na­tional, 3 March 2015


LISTEN HERE: Zero Carbon Britain Visits Brighton Lecture and Discussion


LISTEN HERE (Discussion)

As part of the Uni­ver­sity of Brighton’s ‘c-change’ sus­tain­ab­il­ity cam­paign, we’re co-organising the event below — along with our Stu­dents’ Union’s ‘Bright ‘n’ Green’ team, Han­over Action for Sus­tain­able Liv­ing, BHESCO, and aca­dem­ics within the Uni­ver­sity of Sussex’s School of Global Stud­ies and SPRU.

It’s set to be a fant­astic event, with lots of oppor­tun­it­ies for shar­ing ideas and net­work­ing within the local community.The aim of the event will be to put together a blue­print for action towards a Zero Car­bon Soci­ety — fol­low­ing a present­a­tion from the Centre for Altern­at­ive Tech­no­logy on their flag­ship report, ‘Zero Car­bon Britain’.
Becca Mel­huish
Assist­ant Envir­on­mental Officer
Uni­ver­sity of Brighton
Tel: 01273 641204<>
twit­ter: c-change<>************************************Zero Car­bon Bri­tain­Build­ing a blue­print for action around a zero car­bon soci­ety­Thursday, 26 Feb­ru­ary 2015.
6 — 8:30pm (Regis­tra­tion from 5:30pm)Location: Sal­lis Ben­ney Theatre, Grand Parade, Uni­ver­sity of Brighton.*Introductions and key­note speech will be made by Car­oline Lucas, MP for Brighton Pavilion*Presentation and Q&A by Centre for Altern­at­ive Technology’s Paul Allen & Kit Jones on their ‘Zero Car­bon Bri­tain’ report — the C.A.T’s flag­ship pro­ject show­ing that a mod­ern, zero emis­sions soci­ety is pos­sible using tech­no­lo­gies that are avail­able today.

*Fol­lowed by Q&A, break-out dis­cus­sion groups on four key themes (Energy, Hous­ing, Food and Trans­port), and networking.

All wel­come. Free sus­tain­able food and refresh­ments will be provided.

Please register in advance at:
Face­book event page:

Co-organised by:
Bhesco, Han­over Action for Sus­tain­able Liv­ing, Uni­ver­sity of Brighton c-change cam­paign, Uni­ver­sity of Brighton SU Bright ‘n’ Green, Uni­ver­sity of Sus­sex Global Stud­ies and SPRU.


Listen here:Economics Weekly with John Weeks Show 9 on Cuba


 The pho­to­graph is of Eliza­beth Dore and Regla Hernan­dez Gomez, one of the people she inter­viewed for her 10 year study of atti­tudes of Cubans toward the revolution.










First of a new series of com­ment­ary on eco­nomic con­di­tions and policy in the UK and bey­ond from John Weeks.John Weeks is a pro­fessor emer­itus of the Uni­ver­sity of London’s School of Ori­ental and African Stud­ies and author of The Eco­nom­ics of the 1%: How Main­stream Eco­nom­ics Serves the Rich, Obscures Real­ity and Dis­torts Policy. His recent policy work includes a sup­ple­mental unem­ploy­ment pro­gram for the European Union and advising the cent­ral banks of Argen­tina and Zam­bia. More info on John at


Davy Jones’ Politics Show: Fracking with Frack Free Sussex


This week Dave Jones dis­cusses Frack­ing with Claire Robin­son and Atlanta Cook from Frack Free Sussex.



This Week Dave Jones dis­cusses polit­ics with two stu­dents from the Uni­ver­sity of Brighton, Yas­min and Callum.



This week Davy jones inter­views Mal­colm Cook, dir­ector and presenter of Grow­ing Con­cerns on LATEST TV.



Davy Jones, Green Party Par­lia­ment­ary Can­did­ate for Brighton Kemp­town dis­cusses protest music with Robb John­son and Bethan Prosser


A cam­paign group in Brighton has arranged a protest to coin­cide with a coun­cil meet­ing, after pro­pos­als to close children’s centres across the city.

Brighton Children’s Centres Cam­paign (BCCC) will lead the march, which will go from New Road adja­cent to the Pavil­ion Gar­dens to Hove Town Hall.Thursday Feb­ru­ary 26.

The march will coin­cide with a coun­cil budget meet­ing at Hove Town Hall to approve plans to downs­ize and close children’s centres in the city.

Cllr. Sue Shanks, Chair of the Chil­dren & Young People Com­mit­tee at Brighton and Hove City Coun­cil, said: “We are facing cuts in our budget, but we are not pro­pos­ing to close centres, our pro­pos­als are about rais­ing tax.

I wel­come the protests — I wish more people protest about the things they do not like.”

The pub­lic con­sulta­tion about the pro­pos­als to close and reduce centres across the city received nearly 1,000 responses.

Last month the pro­pos­als were announced, which includes a cut of over £800,000 to children’s ser­vices across the city.

The BCCC is urging sup­port­ers to come along to the march, with signs and pictures.



Davy Jones’ guest this week is Mar­ina Pren­toulis who is Senior Lec­turer in polit­ics and media at the Uni­ver­sity of East Anglia. She is also a mem­ber of Syr­iza and of the Greece Solid­ar­ity Cam­paign. Davy and Mar­ina dis­cuss the recent elec­tions in Greece and the impact of these events in Europe.


This week Davy inter­views Ken Montague who is build­ing local sup­port for the “Time to Act on Cli­mate Change!” national demon­stra­tion on March 7th? You can find out more from


 38 Degrees mem­ber David Fisher has star­ted a peti­tion call­ing on Brighton & Hove Coun­cil to refuse plan­ning per­mis­sion to turn the Brighton Hip­po­drome into an 8 screen cinema. He’d like to see it restored and turned into a live venue, what do you think?

Here’s what David says:

The mag­ni­fi­cent Brighton Hip­po­drome needs your help to save it from being wrecked. It is a unique theatre build­ing, lis­ted Grade II* by Eng­lish Her­it­age because of its his­tor­ical and archi­tec­tural significance.

After clos­ing as a vari­ety theatre in 1965, it was a bingo hall until 2007. The stun­ning interior, how­ever, is still in remark­able con­di­tion, with very little deterioration.

Sud­denly, in mid 2013, a pro­posal to con­vert the build­ing into an eight-screen cinema emerged. The plans involve demol­ish­ing the stage, the fly-tower, all the back-stage facil­it­ies, the stalls and the orches­tra pit. Without these it ceases to be a theatre.”

Click here to sign his peti­tion now:


If you have any com­ments on David’s cam­paign, you can join the con­ver­sa­tion on the 38 Degrees Face­book page here


Sat­urday 13th – Sunday 21st June 2015

Gatwick Detainee Wel­fare Group’s unique walk fol­lows the North Downs Way from Dover to Craw­ley via Can­ter­bury along some of the paths that were taken by the Can­ter­bury pil­grims many cen­tur­ies ago. We will be reflect­ing on the many long and dan­ger­ous jour­neys that refugees make flee­ing war and per­se­cu­tion, seek­ing a safe place to live.

They wel­come walk­ers to join  the 80 mile walk - for the whole route, a day or a few days.

Fol­low­ing a col­our­ful launch event at the begin­ning of the walk in Dover, arts events (drama, art, music, poetry and prose) inspired by The Can­ter­bury Tales will be held at every even­ing stop on the walk.



This week Davy Jones talks to John All­cock from Brighton People’s Assembly about the event Sat Jan10th, Brighthelm Centre 10–4.30pm
Power to the People? A cit­izens’ con­ver­sa­tion about demo­cracy, cuts and resistance.

Why does a crisis of the bank­ing sys­tem mean that we have to have our bene­fits and ser­vices cut?
What gave the Ritzy cinema work­ers the cour­age to strike and win a liv­ing wage?
What happened when a group of young single mums refused to accept evic­tion and rehous­ing far away from their com­munity in East Lon­don?
How can we stop our NHS being dis­mantled piece by piece?

Come to Power to the People? to learn about what we’re up against and dis­cuss how to take back our power and make our voices heard, here in Brighton.
Cam­paign stalls– Films
– Dis­cus­sion and skill shar­ing work­shops
– Free lunch
Sat­urday, 10 Janu­ary 2015 — 10:00 to 16:30
Brighthelm Centre
North Road
BN1 1YD Brighton

Who is Davy Jones? Davy Jones, Green Party Par­lia­ment­ary Can­did­ate for Brighton Kemp­town, and reg­u­lar host of the Polit­ics Show, answers ques­tions posed by Jackie Chase of Radio Free Brighton and other volun­teers from the radio sta­tion                   . LISTEN HERE

Pre­vi­ous Shows:

Salt­dean Coun­tryside Alli­ance  LISTEN HERE

This week Davy Jones talks to Lisa For­rest from the Salt­dean Coun­tryside Alli­ance. A Plan­ning applic­a­tion has been received by Brighton and Hove City Coun­cil for 36 houses on the edge of the downs in Rot­ting­dean, at the north­ern end of West­me­ston Avenue, to the rear of Bish­op­stone Drive and Falmer Avenue, Salt­dean and can be clearly seen from Dean Court Road. To find out more and raise objec­tions go to

City of Sanc­tu­ary                 LISTEN HERE

This week Davy Jones meets Jenny Lans­dell from City of Sanctuary.City of Sanc­tu­ary is a national net­work, a move­ment of local groups made up by busi­nesses, com­munity organ­isa­tions and indi­vidu­als, all with one thing in com­mon; their belief that sanc­tu­ary seekers should be wel­comed, and that their con­tri­bu­tion to soci­ety should be cel­eb­rated.
City of Sanc­tu­ary Brighton…

Dis­cus­sion of the Drugs Issue     LISTEN HERE

This week Davy and Steve Peake dis­cuss the issue of drugs and effect­ive ways to approach the sub­ject through our com­munity and gov­ern­ment policy and altern­at­ive approaches being taken in other countries





Brighton shop­pers are flock­ing to an award-winning retailer offer­ing a novel way to reduce shop­ping costs and save on waste.

The Lon­don Road shop hiSbe “How It Should Be” now offers a clever new multi-purpose car­rier bag at the till which can con­vert into a 60 litre bin liner or recyc­ling sack when shop­pers get home, or be re-used many times at the check­out till. Cus­tom­ers are being encour­aged to try the bag and fill in a short sur­vey to help refine the design.

The bag, another Brighton innov­a­tion, will also enable shop­pers to avoid the 5 pence tax on every single use bag com­ing to all stores across Eng­land in September.

Bag Re:Born inventor, Richard Sim­mon­ite, said: “Single use car­rier bags are an envir­on­mental dis­aster, but reusable car­ri­ers need to be used a lot of times to be any bet­ter. Research has found that people typ­ic­ally use their single use car­rier bags as bin liners, so it made sense to try and cre­ate a product that would do both things while redu­cing the envir­on­mental impact of bags.”

HISBE founders, Ruth and Amy Anslow, added: “Todays shop­pers are act­ive sup­port­ers of social enter­prise and sus­tain­ab­il­ity. Bag Re:Born is a great fit with our cus­tom­ers val­ues as well as sav­ing them money and redu­cing waste”. 

Both com­pan­ies have won industry awards for their innovations.

Eager shop­pers have already grabbed 300 of these new bags in their first week at hiSbe. Bag Re:Born is fore­cast­ing to save fam­il­ies hun­dreds of pounds and pre­vent mil­lions of single use bags being thrown away every year.

Richard Sim­mon­ite
Founder & CEO

Bag Re:Born

twit­ter: BagReborn


Bag Reborn Lim­ited is a com­pany registered in Eng­land and Wales with com­pany num­ber 07476093. Registered office: 67 Church Rd, Hove. BN3 2BD. Please be aware that this entire email (includ­ing any attach­ments) is inten­ded for the addressee(s) only, and may con­tain con­fid­en­tial inform­a­tion. The unau­thor­ised use, dis­clos­ure or copy­ing of this email, attach­ments if any or any inform­a­tion con­tained within is strictly pro­hib­ited and may be illegal. If you are not the inten­ded recip­i­ent, please notify the author and delete this email imme­di­ately in its entirety. Thank you.
Save trees — Think before you print!

Earth Hour Seafront Torchwalk March 28th

Join up for Earth Hour 2015 and do your bit to help our beau­ti­ful planet.

Brighton and Hove Health­walks host the 7th annual Earth Hour Torch walk this Sat­urday the 28th of March.

Meet­ing from 8pm at Hove band­stand where you can register and make your “Pledge to change” before set­ting off at 8:30 with Mara­catu Cruzeiro do Sul samba band and dan­cers and head to the Brighton Wheel.

You can pre-register on the coun­cil web­site on earth Hour 2015 or register on the night.

Bring a torch and some­thing warm.

For more inform­a­tion on Earth Hour and other things you can do go to

Dar­ren Cur­rell
Health­walks Volun­teer Co-ordinator
Sports Devel­op­ment
Kings House
Grand Avenue
01273 292574


Free Award Winning Film Screening — 26 March‏


Brother Dance Pro­duc­tions invites you to a free screen­ing of ‘Pray­ers for Bobby’ at Cir­cus Street Mar­ket, Brighton BN2 9QF, from 7pm on Thursday 26 March.

The true emo­tional story of Mary Grif­fith (Sigour­ney Weaver), gay rights cru­sader, whose teen­age son com­mit­ted sui­cide due to her reli­gious intolerance.

We’ve teamed up with Grass­roots for this screen­ing to encour­age people to take their ‘Tell Me’ pledge to help pre­vent suicide.

There will be hot food on sale, fresh pop­corn, a licensed bar and stalls with inform­a­tion about char­it­ies and organ­isa­tions from across Brighton and Hove.

Please bring cush­ions, port­able chairs, and blankets and dress warmly as it may be chilly.

For more inform­a­tion email:

or find us on face­book:


Brighton Energy Coop working groups meeting 9th April – plus confirmation of new director Terry


At BEC any con­tri­bu­tion is val­ued and they are keen to under­stand how people would like to see the organ­isa­tion move forward.

To do this on April 9th they are kick­ing off a bunch of work­ing groups that will focus on spe­cific areas (See below for an extract of their program).

They had an excel­lent response to their last email look­ing for new roof own­ers for community-owned solar PV.

The BEC also like to use the 9th to con­firm their new dir­ector Terry Walker in place. Terry has been on a trial pos­i­tion since their AGM in Octo­ber, and has agreed he’d like to take up the pos­i­tion. Terry brings a host of gov­ernance and sec­ret­arial skills to BEC.


Work­ing Groups meet­ing, April 9th, 7pm, Brighthelm Centre

Examples of ideas that we might like to grapple with are:

Com­mu­nic­a­tions: we’re look­ing for new ideas to build engage­ment, par­ti­cip­a­tion and col­lab­or­a­tion. We’re also keen to boost our own local net­work­ing capa­city loc­ally. BEC also has some quite large com­mu­nic­a­tion chan­nels: what should these be used for? (where do we stand, for example, on an issue such as fracking?)

New Tech­no­lo­gies: what new tech­no­lo­gies might we con­sider devel­op­ing? Anaer­obic diges­tion, bat­tery stor­age and Bio­mass boil­ers, heat pumps — how might we take these forward?

Policy: how does BEC as an organ­isa­tion want to get involved in the forth­com­ing local elec­tion? We’re also look­ing for people to get involved in national Policy relat­ing to com­munity energy.

Busi­ness Devel­op­ment: we are always hunt­ing for roof space and sourcing the right people to con­tact with. The more the mer­rier, so do you want to be involved?

The need, of course, has never been greater. Enga­ging on cli­mate change is tough. But we think that by work­ing together we’ll get more done, so I hope to see you there!

Please come along to this inter­act­ive meet­ing and be pre­pared to write your name and best skills on a post-it, and have some fun!


Listen to Peoples Debate on the NHS

The next big event is the Peoples Debate on the NHS — Your Future, Your Decision - Tues­day 24th, 7-9p.m. at the Friends Meet­ing House, Brighton.
Also there is an open meet­ing of the Board of Sus­sex Com­munity Trust this Thursday 26th March, where we would like any­body attend­ing to ask about the num­ber of com­munity or step down beds for people recov­er­ing from major sur­gery to be increased, and why SCT aren’t doing more to increase the num­bers.
For those of you in West Sus­sex — and any one else who can sup­port — there are sev­eral talks com­ing up before the elec­tion. These are by the National Health Action (NHA) Party pro­spect­ive par­lia­ment­ary can­did­ate for East Wor­th­ing and Shore­ham, Dr Carl Walker.
And, some­thing to ques­tion your GP about? Research by UNITE the union shows that over a quarter of people on CCG’s have links to private health care firms:

St John Passion performed like you’ve never seen before

Bach’s St John Passion

Good Fri­day 3 Apr, 3pm

Semi-staged with 200 per­formers, includ­ing 8 soloists and the 40-strong orches­tra Cham­ber Domaine.

This per­form­ance of Bach’s St John Pas­sion marks the 500th con­cert by Brighton Fest­ival Chorus and prom­ises to be a mov­ing and dra­matic inter­pret­a­tion of the Good Fri­day story.

First per­formed in Leipzig on Good Fri­day 1724, Bach’s power­fully med­it­at­ive ver­sion of the Gos­pel of St John is a work of start­ling imme­di­acy yet subtle nuance, recre­at­ing the psy­cho­lo­gical and emo­tional con­flict of Christ’s final days before His pub­lic trial and crucifixion.

With the per­formers mov­ing amongst the audi­ence every­body in the Con­cert Hall will get a unique view as Bach’s vis­ion is brought vividly to life in this intim­ate Proms-style performance.

Watch BFC rehearse the mighty St John Passion


Invitation to the Brighton March for the Homeless




This will be a march and protest in Brighton over the treat­ment of home­less people in the UK/Ireland and bey­ond.
It is a new grow­ing solid­ar­ity protest/action that will be held in many cit­ies and towns across the world on the same day by act­iv­ists and groups con­cerned with our streets. All people will be march­ing in solid­ar­ity across the UK.

Start­ing at the Brighton Clock Tower at 11a.m. on April 15, every­one is welcome.

For more inform­a­tion visit:


The Social Cleansing of Lewes

Lewes stop the cuts has dis­covered that the social cleans­ing of Lewes is set to con­tinue with the planned sale of Sax­on­bury in Juggs Lane as part of the secret sale of 49 sites by Lewes dis­trict council.

The build­ing is on the list of sites for sale, which has been shown to mem­bers of the campaign.

It is cur­rently used as tem­por­ary accom­mod­a­tion for home­less local people and is the only such facil­ity in the town.

Lewes Stop the Cuts hous­ing spokes­per­son Chris Smith says: “With high house prices in Lewes town almost any­one can become home­less.  All it takes is a rela­tion­ship breakup or a lost job.  It is vital that people can find tem­por­ary accom­mod­a­tion in the town so that they can con­tinue to hold down their jobs and their chil­dren can con­tinue to go to the same school”.

He com­ments “ We need to be build­ing more emer­gency hous­ing to cope with the crisis, not selling of what we have.  In the long run this will cost the coun­cil money in sub-standard bed and break­fast bills.”

LSTC under­stands that land at Jubilee Gar­dens next door is also on the list of sites for sale, as is the old Turk­ish Baths, the tour­ist centre, the coun­cil offices in Fisher Street, West­ern Road toi­lets, and St Marys Social centre.  Town coun­cil­lors have been told that at least one of the sales is so far down that line that it can­not be stopped.

Chris says  “ The secrecy around these sales seems to be designed to sup­press oppos­i­tion.  I believe that both the rul­ing con­ser­vat­ive group and the main oppos­i­tion lib­eral demo­crat group sup­port these sales and are with­hold­ing inform­a­tion from local people.  There is an elec­tion for the dis­trict coun­cil com­ing soon and res­id­ents should ask can­did­ates what their stance is.”

For more inform­a­tion contact:



Where pen­sion­ers, people with chil­dren or other vul­ner­able people become home­less through no fault of their own the coun­cil must find them some­where to live.  The num­ber of people need­ing to be housed in this way in Lewes Dis­trict has over doubled in recent years.  It is com­mon for people to be placed in bed and break­fast accom­mod­a­tion, in places like East­bourne, even though it is illegal to put them in this type of accom­mod­a­tion except for very short periods.

Lewes Stop the Cuts is a non-party cam­paign group opposed to cuts in pub­lic ser­vices affect­ing Lewes.  It has over 450 sup­port­ers who are sent reg­u­lar updates.  To sub­scribe visit their web­site at   Details of the pro­posed to bus ser­vices in East Sus­sex can be found at the same address.





Here are the accom­pa­ny­ing notes from

01273 384004
Key factors in decid­ing on the legal struc­ture:
 Enga­ging the organisation’s com­munity through mem­ber­ship
 Cor­por­ate status
o Con­tracts entered into by the organ­isa­tion (not by indi­vidu­als)
o Assets held in the name of the organ­isa­tion
o Mem­bers have lim­ited per­sonal liab­il­ity
o Spe­cific stat­utory frame­works for all cor­por­ate organ­isa­tions
 Char­ity status
o Regis­tra­tion not legal struc­ture
o Wide pub­lic recog­ni­tion
o Tax advant­ages (rates relief etc)
o Char­ity law:
 major restric­tions on trust­ees bene­fit­ting per­son­ally
 restric­tions on trad­ing activ­ity
o Reg­u­la­tion by the Char­ity Com­mis­sion
Type of Legal Struc­ture
Unin­cor­por­ated Asso­ci­ation
Com­munity Interest Com­pany (CIC)
Com­pany Lim­ited by Shares (CLS)
Com­pany Lim­ited by Guar­an­tee (CLG)
Friendly Soci­ety
Com­munity Bene­fit Soci­ety (Ben­com)
Can’t register yet
but can apply for tax exemp­tion
Co-operative Soci­ety
Char­it­able Incor­por­ated Organ­isa­tion (CIO)
Can only be a registered char­ity
Unin­cor­por­ated Asso­ci­ation
 Simple struc­ture which can be appro­pri­ate for a group with no fin­an­cial risks
 Pros:
o Can register as a char­ity
 Cons:
o Not ‘cor­por­ate’ so con­tract sig­nat­or­ies are per­son­ally liable
o Risk of liab­il­ity for the organisation’s debts
Com­munity Interest Com­pany (CIC)
 Intro­duced in 2005 spe­cific­ally for social enter­prises.
 Not to be con­fused with the new char­ity CIO struc­ture.
 CICs have to carry on activ­it­ies which bene­fit the com­munity.
CIC Reg­u­lator: light-touch reg­u­la­tion (com­pared with char­it­ies).
 A CIC can be either a com­pany lim­ited by shares (CLS) or a com­pany lim­ited by guar­an­tee (CLG).
 Model doc­u­ments: large or small mem­ber­ship.
 “Asset lock” applies to ensure that assets and profits / sur­pluses are used for the bene­fit of the com­munity.
 Where a CIC is a CLS, dividends are pos­sible (sub­ject to a dividend cap).
 Pros:
o Quick and easy to set up (unlike char­it­ies)
o More flex­ible than char­it­ies
o Dir­ect­ors can be paid (much less restric­tion than char­it­ies)
o Grow­ing pub­lic recog­ni­tion (but less than char­it­ies)
o Access to pub­lic funds
 Cons:
o None of the tax advant­ages of char­it­ies
Com­pany lim­ited by Shares (CLS)
 Most com­mon legal struc­ture for privately-owned busi­nesses.
 Can be set up as a CIC, but can­not register as a char­ity.
 Unusual struc­ture for a com­munity organ­isa­tion unless it oper­ates a busi­ness.
Com­pany lim­ited by Guar­an­tee (CLG)
 Unlike a CLS, no own­er­ship as there are no shares.
 Can be registered as a char­ity or as a CIC (but not as both).
 Pros:
o Quick and easy to set up
 Cons:
o Pub­lic recog­ni­tion dif­fi­cult unless registered as char­ity or CIC
o No tax advant­ages (unless registered as a char­ity)
Friendly Soci­ety
 Old struc­ture, now less com­mon.
 Required to have a ‘bene­vol­ent’ pur­pose and at least 7 mem­bers.
 Friendly Soci­et­ies Act 1974
 Pros:
o Can apply to HMRC for char­it­able status for tax pur­poses
 Cons:
o Not ‘cor­por­ate’ so con­tract sig­nat­or­ies are per­son­ally liable and greater risk of liab­il­ity for com­mit­tee gen­er­ally
o Not com­monly under­stood / recog­nised
o Reg­u­lated by the Regis­trar of Friendly Soci­et­ies
Com­munity Bene­fit Soci­ety (CBS)
 This was pre­vi­ously an Indus­trial & Provid­ent Soci­ety.
 Not-for-profit organ­isa­tion with char­it­able pur­pose, and demo­crat­ic­ally con­trolled by its mem­bers.
 Struc­ture used by some hous­ing asso­ci­ations, ama­teur sports clubs etc
 Registered with the Fin­an­cial Con­duct Author­ity.
 Can’t register with the Char­ity Com­mis­sion (but that may change)
 Pros:
o A sound vehicle for social invest­ment (but com­pare this with a CLS which is a CIC)
o Can apply to HMRC for char­it­able status for tax pur­poses
 Cons:
o Not com­monly under­stood / recog­nised
o FCA rules / pro­ced­ures often seen as cum­ber­some
o FCA fee up to £950 per year (check in advance)
Co-operative Soci­ety
 Registered with the Fin­an­cial Con­duct Author­ity
FCA must be sat­is­fied that the co-operative soci­ety is bona fide by ref­er­ence to the Inter­na­tional State­ment on the Co-operative Iden­tity (vol­un­tary and open mem­ber­ship / demo­cratic mem­ber con­trol / mem­bers’ eco­nomic par­ti­cip­a­tion / autonomy and inde­pend­ence / set up to provide edu­ca­tion, train­ing and inform­a­tion / co-operation amongst co-operatives / con­cern for com­munity).
 Society’s rules must demon­strate:
o Com­mon, eco­nomic, social or cul­tural need or interest among mem­bers
o Busi­ness run for mutual bene­fit of mem­bers
o Soci­ety con­trolled by the mem­bers equally – one mem­ber, one vote — not on their level of invest­ment
o Basis for dis­tri­bu­tion of profits to mem­bers reflect­ing their par­ti­cip­a­tion in the busi­ness
 Pros:
o Sound legal struc­ture but only where appro­pri­ate
o Cor­por­ate status
 Cons:
o Very spe­cific legal frame­work
Char­it­able Incor­por­ated Organ­isa­tion (CIO)
 Intro­duced as cor­por­ate vehicle exclus­ive to char­it­ies
 Not to be con­fused with CICs
 Reg­u­lated by Char­ity Com­mis­sion
 Char­ity law applies
 Com­pany law doesn’t apply (unlike a CLG registered as a char­ity)
 Model doc­u­ments provide for large or small mem­ber­ship.
 Pros:
o All the pros of char­ity status
o Com­pan­ies House not involved
 Cons:
o No entity exists until the full char­ity regis­tra­tion pro­cess has been com­pleted
o Poten­tial prob­lem with com­mer­cial bor­row­ing: no ‘charges register’ at the Char­ity Com­mis­sion (com­pare Com­pan­ies House and CLGs on this)
A Note on Per­sonal Liab­il­ity of Char­ity Trust­ees
(also rel­ev­ant to Dir­ect­ors of CICs)
This note is for gen­eral guid­ance only. In any par­tic­u­lar situ­ation, spe­cific advice will be appro­pri­ate.
The pur­pose of this note is to cla­rify Char­ity Trust­ees’ risk of liab­il­ity of where the Char­ity has the legal status of either –
 a com­pany lim­ited by guar­an­tee (“CLG”); or
 a char­it­able incor­por­ated organ­isa­tion (“CIO”).
CLGs are a com­mon legal struc­ture for char­it­ies. The Dir­ect­ors are also the Char­ity Trust­ees.
This note will also be rel­ev­ant to any poten­tial liab­il­ity of a sub­si­di­ary trad­ing com­pany of the Char­ity, which might be a CIC or a ‘stand­ard’ com­pany lim­ited by shares (“CLS”). All points in this note except (2) – Char­ity Law – will apply also to a CIC or a CLS.
In legal terms, both a CLG and a CIO have ‘cor­por­ate’ status, mean­ing that the organ­isa­tion is a legal ‘per­son’ (sep­ar­ate to the Trust­ees) so that a CLG or CIO can for example enter into a con­tract in its own name. This con­trasts with the other two types of char­ity legal struc­ture – Trust and Unin­cor­por­ated Asso­ci­ation – where any con­tract would effect­ively be entered into by the Trust­ees.
Cor­por­ate status will not com­pletely pre­vent per­sonal liab­il­ity, although it would be unusual as can be seen from the fol­low­ing ana­lysis:
(1) Con­tracts should be signed:
 in the case of a CLG: by a Dir­ector (who would also be a Trustee) on behalf of the com­pany;
 in the case of a CIO: by a Trustee on behalf of the CIO.
The key here is that where a con­tract is entered into by a CLG or CIO, it is a con­tract of the cor­por­ate entity, not the Director’s / Trustee’s per­sonal con­tract: they simply sign on behalf of the CLG / CIO.
This can be a sig­ni­fic­ant issue with any con­tract, but espe­cially where there is higher value as in prop­erty leases, con­struc­tion con­tracts etc.
CLG / CIO status poten­tially gives trust­ees much greater pro­tec­tion in rela­tion to a Charity’s con­tracts than unin­cor­por­ated status (Trust / Unin­cor­por­ated Asso­ci­ation) where the sig­nat­ory can be per­son­ally liable under the con­tract.
How­ever, an import­ant excep­tion to this pro­tec­tion can arise if the CLG / CIO becomes insolv­ent: see (4a) below.
(2) Com­pli­ance with Char­ity Law is a per­sonal oblig­a­tion of every Char­ity Trustee, and non-compliance can lead to per­sonal liab­il­ity. CLG / CIO status makes no dif­fer­ence here. How­ever, breaches of Char­ity Law should be fairly eas­ily avoided: amongst the most com­mon breaches are act­ing out­side the scope of the Charity’s Objects, and where Trust­ees bene­fit per­son­ally from the Char­ity (except as allowed by the
con­sti­tu­tion or under the Char­it­ies Act 2006 and sub­ject to an appro­pri­ate pro­ced­ure being fol­lowed).
(3) In extreme cir­cum­stances, the dir­ect­ors of a com­pany can be per­son­ally liable in rela­tion to death or per­sonal injury res­ult­ing from neg­li­gence in the company’s activ­it­ies, and this could affect Trust­ees where the Char­ity is a CLG or CIO. Cor­por­ate status is not an abso­lute pro­tec­tion, but per­sonal liab­il­ity is unlikely to arise unless Dir­ect­ors / Trust­ees have ser­i­ously failed in their duty of care. Act­ive and effect­ive risk man­age­ment is extremely import­ant here.
(4) If an unin­cor­por­ated Char­ity (Trust / Unin­cor­por­ated Asso­ci­ation) becomes insolv­ent, its trust­ees can be per­son­ally liable for its debts. How­ever, sub­ject to excep­tions, that would not hap­pen if the Char­ity is a CLG or CIO. The main excep­tions are:
(4a) A dir­ector / trustee can be made per­son­ally liable for com­mit­ments which the CLG / CIO entered into when the dir­ector / trustee knew (or should have known) that the CLG / CIO could not at that time pay its debts.
(4b) If restric­ted funds haven’t been used strictly in accord­ance with their terms, a dir­ector / trustee can become per­son­ally liable for a short­fall.
(5) Dir­ect­ors of a com­pany are per­son­ally liable for stat­utory fines, e.g. if annual accounts are late in being sent to Com­pan­ies House. This applies only to CLGs. It is pos­sible that the Char­ity Com­mis­sion may intro­duce sim­ilar fines which may affect Trust­ees of CIOs, in which case that would also be a per­sonal liab­il­ity.
Finally, there is a com­mon mis­con­cep­tion that with CLGs a Trustee’s per­sonal liab­il­ity is lim­ited to £1. That liab­il­ity limit applies to Mem­bers of the CLG. Trust­ees are Dir­ect­ors, and the liab­il­ity of a Dir­ector is not lim­ited: if the Dir­ector of the CLG is also a Mem­ber, his/her liab­il­ity as Mem­ber will be lim­ited to £1, but not liab­il­ity as Dir­ector. The pos­i­tion with CIOs is very sim­ilar. How­ever, while Trust­ees’ liab­il­ity is not lim­ited to £1, where the Char­ity is a CLG or CIO, per­sonal liab­il­ity should be unusual as the sum­mary above hope­fully indic­ates.
* * *
© Tim Smith
Grif­fith Smith Far­ring­ton Webb LLP March 2015


United Nations Association – Climate Change Lecture by Alex Mabbs


Alex Mabbs came to the United Nations Asso­ci­ation (UNA) meet­ing to give a talk on cli­mate change.

Alex Mabbs is a United Reformed Church min­is­ter based at the Brighthelm centre, in Brighton in Sus­sex, England.

Alex Mabb’s blog =



Tom Lines came to the United Nations Asso­ci­ation (UNA) meet­ing to give a talk of the city of Lon­don as a centre of fin­an­cial power in Britain.

Tom Lines is a Writer, Eco­nom­ics, trade and devel­op­ment consultant.

You can learn more about Tom Lines and his work at
and fol­low him on Twit­ter @TomLINESorguk

Tom says: I’m attach­ing a paper that I pro­duced for the talk (but please note that pp. 2–4 are not com­plete yet).  And here are links for some other things I men­tioned in it:
Coun­cil of the Inter­na­tional Reg­u­lat­ory Strategy Group:

Art­icle by Bur­eau of Invest­ig­at­ive Journ­al­ism (one of sev­eral it did in 2012)[:

Listen here Richard D Wolff: Economic Update 26−03−15



Sys­tem Change: Then and Now

Updates on Trans-Pacific Part­ner­ship secrets, the Heinz-Kraft mer­ger, the overly costly, under­per­form­ing US med­ical care sys­tem, fines for Graco selling faulty child car-seats, China’s real-estate bubble, and estate tax repeal by Repub­lican House. Response to listener on prop­erty: private versus pub­lic. Major dis­cus­sion of how sys­tem change happened in the past and and how in cap­it­al­ism today.



Eco­nom­ics of Corruption”

Updates on Yel­len press conference,“Blockupy” protests in Europe against ECB and aus­ter­ity, New York mayor DiBla­sio signs bill for worker coops, and import­ant fight over clos­ing Sweet Briar col­lege. Inter­view with vet­eran reporter Bob Hen­nelly on eco­nom­ics of US polit­ical cor­rup­tion with spe­cial focus on his nat­ive New Jersey.


Hous­ing, Cit­ies, Suburbs”

Updates on pizza polit­ics, chan­ging cur­rency val­ues, and tax-cutting politi­cians’ wild claims. Responses on work­ers coops’ com­pet­it­ive­ness and on ‘unfree’ agri­cul­tural mar­kets. Inter­view Wal­ter South on eco­nom­ics of hous­ing and dan­ger­ous eco­nom­ics of US cit­ies and suburbs.


Eco­nomic Decline and Grow­ing Resistance”

Updates on taxis vs Über vs driver coops, an apo­logy on Detroit, Inter­na­tional Womens Day, and cut­ting work­ers’ com­pens­a­tion. Response to listen­ers on the eco­nom­ics of debts, past and present. Major dis­cus­sions of (1) res­ist­ing eco­nomic decline: Min­nesota gov­ernor, Emma Thompson and Pope Fran­cis, (2) Wis­con­sin gov­ernor presides over eco­nomic decline, and (3) extremes of eco­nomic inequality.


Updates on Europeans’ struggles against aus­ter­ity policies. Response to ques­tions on how work­ers’ self-directed enter­prises solve vari­ous prob­lems (espe­cially fin­an­cing and dif­fer­ent skill levels). In depth crit­ical dis­cus­sion of ‘free enter­prise’ and the free enter­prise system.


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